What is Trauma?

Primary trauma is any event that exceeded your capacity to cope.  

Secondary trauma is not having the support you needed after the event happened.

Common Types of Trauma

Betrayal Trauma.  Being betrayed by a loved one where trust is broken.  For example, being cheated on or being abused by your partner.

Complex Trauma.  Repetitive harm, multiple events. 

Developmental Trauma.  Chronic family trauma.  This might include having a parent with mental illness or substance abuse, losing a parent, witnessing domestic violence, emotional neglect, not having the basic necessities, and or direct verbal, physical, spiritual or sexual abuse. 

Single-Incident Trauma: Examples may include a car accident, tornado, death of a loved one, bullying, or physical, sexual assault, or financial crisis. 

Traumatic Grief.  A traumatic reaction after a death where responses are severe or prolonged and interfere with daily functioning.


Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Post-traumatic stress is the shock after a event that overwhelms and threatens your sense of safety, responsibility and choice. The effects may be immediate or take time to surface, and can be felt over a lifetime.  Whether you are suffering from the impact of one traumatic event or ongoing trauma, recovery is possible.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): May develop after a person has been exposed to a traumatic experience. Sufferers often have persistent symptoms including:

  • Unwanted upsetting memories
  • Nightmares
  • Flashbacks
  • Emotional distress after exposure to traumatic reminders
  • Physical reactivity after exposure to traumatic reminders
  • Trauma-related thoughts or feelings
  • Trauma-related reminders
  • Inability to recall key features of the trauma
  • Overly negative thoughts and assumptions about oneself or the world
  • Exaggerated blame of self or others for causing the trauma
  • Negative feelings
  • Decreased interest in activities
  • Feeling isolated
  • Difficulty experiencing positive feelings
  • Irritability or aggression
  • Risky or destructive behavior
  • Hypervigilance (high anxiety, safety seeking)
  • Heightened startle reaction
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Difficulty sleeping

I offer a caring approach to trauma recovery. Healing is possible.  

Physical Effects of Trauma


I go over the different approaches with you to see what might be the best fit.  EMDR is one approach.